You can see the schedule below for all the particulars of the Maine Potato Net. 'New Leaf', owned by Monsanto Company, incorporates genes from Bacillus thuringiensis, which confers resistance to the Colorado potato beetle; 'New Leaf Plus' and 'New Leaf Y', approved by US regulatory agencies during the 1990s, also include resistance to viruses. A traditional Acadian dish from New Brunswick is known as poutine râpée. The chain deposits into an area where further separation occurs. Kennebec és una varietat de patata. Vada pav is a popular vegetarian fast food dish in Mumbai and other regions in the Maharashtra in India. Apart from the 5,000 cultivated varieties, there are about 200 wild species and subspecies, many of which can be cross-bred with cultivated varieties. [33] Around 80 varieties are commercially available in the UK. [68], Potato growth can be divided into five phases. [92] As well as affecting potatoes directly, climate change will also affect the distributions and populations of many potato diseases and pests. [13][14] The name originally referred to the sweet potato although the two plants are not closely related. [5][6][7] In the Andes region of South America, where the species is indigenous, some close relatives of the potato are cultivated. In Germany, Northern (Finland, Latvia and especially Scandinavian countries), Eastern Europe (Russia, Belarus and Ukraine) and Poland, newly harvested, early ripening varieties are considered a special delicacy. Gauldie, Enid (1981). Wound-healing prevents infection and water-loss from the tubers during storage. While this was a very low value of pesticide residue, it was the highest amongst the 50 vegetables analyzed.[77]. Pub. Kennebec is a medium- to late-maturing white potato. Potatoes are represented anthropomorphically as well as naturally. Global warming is predicted to have significant effects on global potato production. Tubers form in response to decreasing day length, although this tendency has been minimized in commercial varieties.[20]. Maine Potato Lady Potato and Garlic Fertilizer may be worked in 2 weeks prior to planting. The historically significant Phytophthora infestans (late blight) remains an ongoing problem in Europe[30][73] and the United States. This table shows the nutrient content of potatoes next to other major staple foods, each one measured in its respective raw state, even though staple foods are not commonly eaten raw and are usually sprouted or cooked before eating. [43] Amflora potatoes therefore produce starch consisting almost entirely of amylopectin, and are thus more useful for the starch industry. [66], Potatoes are generally grown from seed potatoes, tubers specifically grown to be free from disease and to provide consistent and healthy plants. Genetically modified varieties have met public resistance in the United States and in the European Union. In mid- to late-July, our 55,000 acres of potato fields are a sight to behold. [41], Genetic research has produced several genetically modified varieties. Plants propagated from tubers are clones of the parent, whereas those propagated from seed produce a range of different varieties. [72] Three successive plowings, with associated harrowing and rolling, are desirable before planting. The only requirement involves cooking to swell the starch granules. Good ground preparation, harrowing, plowing, and rolling are always needed, along with a little grace from the weather and a good source of water. [111] Potato density assessment can be performed by floating them in brines. Correct potato husbandry can be an arduous task in some circumstances. The Royal Spanish Academy says the Spanish word is a hybrid of the Taíno batata ('sweet potato') and the Quechua papa ('potato'). The potato cyst nematode is a microscopic worm that thrives on the roots, thus causing the potato plants to wilt. Potatoes are boiled between 10 and 25[94] minutes, depending on size and type, to become soft. Agricultural produce, particularly potato and broccoli farming, is important to the local economy. Using DNA, scientists hunt for the roots of the modern potato, "The Potato's Contribution to Population and Urbanization: Evidence from a Historical Experiment", "Potato production in 2018; Region/World/Production Quantity/Crops from pick lists", "Nutrient contents of potato, baked, flesh and skin, without salt per 100 grams", List of what counts towards 5 A DAY portions of fruit and vegetables, J-Agric-Food-Chem. [113], The potato has been an essential crop in the Andes since the pre-Columbian Era. The Federa!-State Market News office in Presque Isfe, Maine wishes to acknowledge Its debt of gratitude to the following p^^sons and organizations for service rendered during the 1986-1987 shipping season when reports were Issued from Oct. 2, 1986 through May 8, 1987. There are two major subspecies of Solanum tuberosum: andigena, or Andean; and tuberosum, or Chilean. Normal potato tubers that have been grown and stored properly produce glycoalkaloids in amounts small enough to be negligible to human health, but if green sections of the plant (namely sprouts and skins) are exposed to light, the tuber can accumulate a high enough concentration of glycoalkaloids to affect human health. [55] In the Altiplano, potatoes provided the principal energy source for the Inca civilization, its predecessors, and its Spanish successor. [17] The origin of the word spud has erroneously been attributed to an 18th-century activist group dedicated to keeping the potato out of Britain, calling itself The Society for the Prevention of Unwholesome Diet (S.P.U.D.). [36], The European Cultivated Potato Database (ECPD) is an online collaborative database of potato variety descriptions that is updated and maintained by the Scottish Agricultural Science Agency within the framework of the European Cooperative Programme for Crop Genetic Resources Networks (ECP/GR)—which is run by the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI). In 2010, the European Commission cleared the way for 'Amflora' to be grown in the European Union for industrial purposes only—not for food. The potato is a root vegetable native to the Americas, a starchy tuber of the plant Solanum tuberosum, and the plant itself is a perennial in the nightshade family, Solanaceae.[2]. In 1845, a plant disease known as late blight, caused by the fungus-like oomycete Phytophthora infestans, spread rapidly through the poorer communities of western Ireland as well as parts of the Scottish Highlands, resulting in the crop failures that led to the Great Irish Famine. Stevenson, W.R., Loria, R., Franc, G.D., and Weingartner, D.P. Early potatoes also produce 'new potatoes' earlier than later varieties. In July, come spend a week and enjoy the festivities at the Maine Potato Blossom Festival in Fort Fairfield. [105] As the day drew nearer, either side could have cut its losses and sold out. Timothy Doak is the Superintendent of Schools. 2003 May 7; 51(10): 2964–73, "United States Potato Board -Seed Potatoes", Science & Advice for Scottish Agriculture, "Dutch saltwater potatoes offer hope for world's hungry", "NJF seminar No. The Potato Blossom Festival, a cultural phenomenon in Aroostook County, features the crowning of the annual Potato Blossom Queen. In the UK, most seed potatoes originate in Scotland, in areas where westerly winds reduce aphid attack and the spread of potato virus pathogens. [40] In 2010, potatoes were bioengineered specifically for these pigmentation traits. The importance of the potato as a food source and culinary ingredient varies by region and is still changing. It subsequently transferred over to a variety of digging tools. Potato grading for Idaho potatoes is performed in which No. of Cold River Gold Potatoes (5-6 potatoes) ¼ C Butter ¼ C Sour Cream ¼ C Milk 1 tsp. [76], According to an Environmental Working Group analysis of USDA and FDA pesticide residue tests performed from 2000 through 2008, 84% of the 2,216 tested potato samples contained detectable traces of at least one pesticide. Three thousand of them are found in the Andes alone, mainly in Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Chile, and Colombia. He deliberately chose coarse and ugly models, thinking that they would be natural and unspoiled in his finished work.[116]. Timothy Johns: With bitter Herbs They Shall Eat it : Chemical ecology and the origins of human diet and medicine, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson 1990, International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, "Potato – Definition of potato by Merriam-Webster", "Geographic distribution of wild potato species", "A single domestication for potato based on multilocus amplified fragment length polymorphism genotyping", "Using DNA, scientists hunt for the roots of the modern potato", American Association for the Advancement of Science, "DNA from herbarium specimens settles a controversy about origins of the European potato", "Regulation of potato tuberization by daylength and gibberellins", "Consumer acceptance of genetically modified potatoes", "A genetically modified potato, not for eating, is stirring some opposition in Europe", "Molecular description and similarity relationships among native germplasm potatoes (, "ISO accreditation a world-first for CIP genebank", "Sequencing the Potato Genome: Outline and First Results to Come from the Elucidation of the Sequence of the World's Third Most Important Food Crop", "Using DNA, Scientists Hunt For The Roots Of The Modern Potato", "Welcome to the Crop Wild Relatives Prebreeding project", "Potato and tomato late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans: An overview of pathology and resistance breeding", "Gene RB cloned from Solanum bulbocastanum confers broad spectrum resistance to potato late blight", "Saving the Potato in its Andean Birthplace", "Potatoes for Chipping Grades and Standards | Agricultural Marketing Service", "Retrospective View of North American Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Breeding in the 20th and 21st Centuries", "Genetically Engineered Organisms Public Issues Education Project/Am I eating GE potatoes? [60], In the UK, potatoes are not considered by the National Health Service (NHS) as counting or contributing towards the recommended daily five portions of fruit and vegetables, the 5-A-Day program.[61]. Developed by the University of Maine, the new variety is a dual-purpose, russet-skinned variety with high yields, mid-season maturity and moderate common scab resistance. Insects that commonly transmit potato diseases or damage the plants include the Colorado potato beetle, the potato tuber moth, the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), the potato aphid, beet leafhoppers, thrips, and mites. [12] Cooking at high temperatures—over 170 °C (338 °F)—partly destroys these compounds. In the third phase the tips of the stolons swell forming new tubers and the shoots continue to grow and flowers typically develop soon after. For culinary purposes, varieties are often differentiated by their waxiness: floury or mealy baking potatoes have more starch (20–22%) than waxy boiling potatoes (16–18%). Commercial growers cover them by piling additional soil around the base of the plant as it grows (called "hilling" up, or in British English "earthing up"). Like all parts of the plant except the tubers, the fruit contain the toxic alkaloid solanine and are therefore unsuitable for consumption. Kennebec County, Maine; Kennebec, South Dakota; Kennebec River in Maine; Kennebec Township in Iowa; Kennebec Lake in Frontenac County in Ontario, Canada; Kennebec tribe, also written as Kinipekw; Kennebec, an area of Quebec represented in the Senate of Canada; Kennebec potato, a variety of potato; Kennebec Pass, north of mayday Colorado [28] Nonetheless, genetic testing of the wide variety of cultivars and wild species affirms that all potato subspecies derive from a single origin in the area of present-day southern Peru and extreme Northwestern Bolivia (from a species in the Solanum brevicaule complex). [44] Another GM potato variety developed by BASF is 'Fortuna' which was made resistant to late blight by adding two resistance genes, blb1 and blb2, which originate from the Mexican wild potato Solanum bulbocastanum. By 1994 however, Maine had fallen to the eighth ranked potato producer and the seventh in the number of acres devoted to potato cultivation in the United States. So began the long tradition of May planting and September harvesting in Maine’s Aroostook County. Order 1 Lb Maine Red Potatoes Online. Va ser creada l'any 1941 pel Departament d'Agricultura dels Estats Units partint dels creuaments de les varietats (Chippewa x Katahdin)x (3895-13 x Earlaine). Invented in 1949, and marketed and sold commercially by Hasbro in 1952, Mr. Cross-breeding has been done repeatedly to transfer resistances to certain pests and diseases from the gene pool of wild species to the gene pool of cultivated potato species. [23] The Andean potato is adapted to the short-day conditions prevalent in the mountainous equatorial and tropical regions where it originated; the Chilean potato, however, native to the Chiloé Archipelago, is adapted to the long-day conditions prevalent in the higher latitude region of southern Chile. Around 1845, the name transferred to the tuber itself, the first record of this usage being in New Zealand English. After flowering, potato plants produce small green fruits that resemble green cherry tomatoes, each containing about 300 seeds. They are believed to be probable carcinogens and their occurrence in cooked foods is being studied for potentially influencing health problems. In Ecuador, the potato, as well as being a staple with most dishes, is featured in the hearty locro de papas, a thick soup of potato, squash, and cheese. Maine Potatoes are Fresh, Sustainable, Delicious, and Nutritious! The distinction may also arise from variation in the comparative ratio of two different potato starch compounds: amylose and amylopectin. Learn how and when to remove this template message, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kennebec_potato&oldid=929052661, Articles needing additional references from March 2013, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Different designs use different systems at this point. Van Gogh said he wanted to depict peasants as they really were. Wound-response studies are often done on potato tuber tissue, as are electron transport experiments. However, this does not provide a definitive guide, as greening and glycoalkaloid accumulation can occur independently of each other. In the US, this restricts production of seed potatoes to only 15 states out of all 50 states where potatoes are grown. [39] Carotenoid compounds include provitamin A alpha-carotene and beta-carotene, which are converted to the essential nutrient, vitamin A, during digestion. Potatoes do well at a pH near 6.0; they require calcium for adequate plant health and tuber-specific gravity. Jean-François Millet's The Potato Harvest depicts peasants working in the plains between Barbizon and Chailly. In Chile's Chiloé Archipelago, potatoes are the main ingredient of many dishes, including milcaos, chapaleles, curanto and chochoca. [82], On the other hand, temperatures below 4 °C (39 °F) convert the starch in potatoes into sugar, which alters their taste and cooking qualities and leads to higher acrylamide levels in the cooked product, especially in deep-fried dishes. The world dedicated 18.6 million hectares (46 million acres) to potato cultivation in 2010; the world average yield was 17.4 tonnes per hectare (7.8 short tons per acre). Breeders try to keep glycoalkaloid levels below 200 mg/kg (200 ppmw). F raw green soybeans Kennebec is a medium- to late-maturing white potato. Frank. Common dishes are: mashed potatoes, which are first boiled (usually peeled), and then mashed with milk or yogurt and butter; whole baked potatoes; boiled or steamed potatoes; French-fried potatoes or chips; cut into cubes and roasted; scalloped, diced, or sliced and fried (home fries); grated into small thin strips and fried (hash browns); grated and formed into dumplings, Rösti or potato pancakes. This is not an exhaustive list of materials labeled on potatoes in Maine; this is a list of recommended chemicals. /* unofficial, Potatoes contain toxic compounds known as glycoalkaloids, of which the most prevalent are solanine and chaconine. Potatoes do not keep very well in storage and are vulnerable to moulds that feed on the stored tubers and quickly turn them rotten, whereas crops such as grain can be stored for several years with a low risk of rot. [64] Since then, breeders developing new varieties test for this, and sometimes have to discard an otherwise promising cultivar. [52][53] The most widely cultivated variety, Solanum tuberosum tuberosum, is indigenous to the Chiloé Archipelago, and has been cultivated by the local indigenous people since before the Spanish conquest. In the UK, game chips are a traditional accompaniment to roast gamebirds such as pheasant, grouse, partridge and quail. Tertiary leaflets occur very seldom, if at all. Puddings made from grated potatoes (kugel, kugelis, and potato babka) are popular items of Ashkenazi, Lithuanian, and Belarusian cuisine. The concentration of glycoalkaloids in wild potatoes is sufficient to produce toxic effects in humans. Improvements in one or more of these yield determinants, and a closure of the yield gap, can be a major boost to food supply and farmer incomes in the developing world.[90][91]. [24], The International Potato Center, based in Lima, Peru, holds an ISO-accredited collection of potato germplasm. [115], Van Gogh's 1885 painting The Potato Eaters portrays a family eating potatoes. The average quantity of all pesticide traces found in the 2,216 samples was 1.602 ppm. French fries and often hash browns are commonly found in typical American fast-food burger "joints" and cafeterias. (The glycoalkaloid content was, in order from highest to lowest: flowers, sprouts, leaves, tuber skin, roots, berries, peel [skin plus outer cortex of tuber flesh], stems, and tuber flesh).[11]. In 1987, Maine’s acres harvested and production were 6.4% and 6.0% of the total U.S. crop. Today they are a staple food in many parts of the world and an integral part of much of the world's food supply. Farmington is drained by Wilson Stream, Temple Stream, Beaver Brook and the Sandy River.. It was an agricultural boomtown, the largest potato shipping hub in the world during the first half of the 10th century. Tuber bulking occurs during the fourth phase, when the plant begins investing the majority of its resources in its newly formed tubers. [15] In many of the chronicles detailing agriculture and plants, no distinction is made between the two. A medium-size potato with the skin provides 27 m… The Kennebec plant is non-pigmented, large and erect, with thick stems that are prominently angled. [8], Following millennia of selective breeding, there are now over 5,000 different types of potatoes. At more formal dinners, a common practice includes taking small red potatoes, slicing them, and roasting them in an iron skillet. [92] Like many crops, potatoes are likely to be affected by changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide, temperature and precipitation, as well as interactions between these factors. Both sides in the Maine potato war had over-invested and neither could afford to lose the standoff. Maine statutes require that in order for a seed lot to receive certification, a sample must be submitted for post-harvest disease testing at the Maine Potato Testing Lab. [63] In a summary of several studies, the glycoalkaloid content was highest in the flowers and sprouts and lowest in the tuber flesh. A creamer potato is a variety of potato harvested before it matures to keep it small and tender. [7] However, lack of genetic diversity, due to the very limited number of varieties initially introduced, left the crop vulnerable to disease. It remains an essential crop in Europe, especially Northern and Eastern Europe, where per capita production is still the highest in the world, while the most rapid expansion in production over the past few decades has occurred in southern and eastern Asia, with China and India leading the world in overall production as of 2018. It is also resistant to golden nematode race Ro1 and is moderately resistant to Verticillium wilt. "The Maine-New Brunswick potato war seems to be over," Jan Tennant announced on The National on March 29, 1980. Ingredients: 3 slices bacon chopped 1 medium onion diced (about 1 cup) 1 celery stalk diced (about 1/2 cup) 4 cups peeled diced Yukon Gold potatoes 4 cups chicken stock 1/2 teaspoon onion powder 1/2 teaspoon garlic powder 1/2 teaspoon salt 1/2 teaspoon pepper 1 cup half and half 1 cup low-fat plain Greek yogurt 1 cup shredded cheddar … The initials of the main words in this title gave rise to spud." One popular favourite involves a baked potato with cheddar cheese (or sour cream and chives) on top, and in New England "smashed potatoes" (a chunkier variation on mashed potatoes, retaining the peel) have a great popularity. Smashed condimented potato is used in causa Limeña and papa rellena. [81], Storage facilities need to be carefully designed to keep the potatoes alive and slow the natural process of decomposition, which involves the breakdown of starch. The result is a moist ball about the size of a baseball. [21][22], The major species grown worldwide is Solanum tuberosum (a tetraploid with 48 chromosomes), and modern varieties of this species are the most widely cultivated. [114], During the late 19th century, numerous images of potato harvesting appeared in European art, including the works of Willem Witsen and Anton Mauve. ", "International Year of the Potato: 2008, Asia and Oceania", "People are spending $14 to send message-bearing potatoes", "6 gifts you can anonymously send to your mortal enemies", "New company lets you send messages on potatoes", "Pembrokeshire Early Potato gets protected European status", Online Potato Pedigree Database for cultivated varieties, GMO Safety: Genetic engineering on potatoes, Solanum tuberosum (potato, papas): life cycle, tuber anatomy at GeoChemBio, Potato, in Cyclopedia of American Agriculture, List of top international rankings by country, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Potato&oldid=1001746597, Crops originating from indigenous Americans, Articles with dead external links from May 2020, Articles with permanently dead external links, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles containing Quechua-language text, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Potatoes are used to brew alcoholic beverages such as. [86] United Kingdom was a close second. C raw hard red winter wheat In a 100-gram (3 1⁄2-ounce) portion, raw potato provides 322 kilojoules (77 kilocalories) of food energy and is a rich source of vitamin B6 and vitamin C (23% and 24% of the Daily Value, respectively), with no other vitamins or minerals in significant amount (see table). Commercial planting of 'Amflora' was expected in the Czech Republic and Germany in the spring of 2010, and Sweden and the Netherlands in subsequent years. [82], If potatoes develop green areas or start to sprout, trimming or peeling those green-colored parts is inadequate to remove copresent toxins, and such potatoes are no longer edible.[84][85]. Potato flakes are popular as an instant variety of mashed potatoes, which reconstitute into mashed potatoes by adding water, with butter or oil and salt to taste. 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